In 1657, most of the new developments concerned England and its still-developing empire. The major world event that did not involve England in any way was the Great Fire of Meireki, which swept through the Japanese capital of Edo (Tokyo) in early March. It lasted for three days, destroyed 60-70% of the city, and was … Continue reading 1657: Cromwell & the English Empire. Etc.
The year 1656 CE saw several developments in the ongoing history of West European empires. Let’s look at a small news item from Istanbul first. Then we’ll look at Dutch colonial doings worldwide before coming to the escalating conflict between England and Spain. A new vizierial dynasty in Istanbul Köprülü Mehmed Pasha had been born … Continue reading 1656: Dutch in China, Gold Coast as Cromwell makes war on Spain. Etc.
In 1655 CE, the four European imperial powers were continuing their work as usual all around the world: plundering, enslaving, fighting (including amongst themselves), conducting political intrigue at home, etc. Oh just the smell of the super-profits available to the investors in colonial plunder was enough to drive a person wild! (A notably strange and … Continue reading 1655: News from Philippines, Chile, Amsterdams old & new, Tunis. But mainly Jamaica.
Here are the news items for 1645 CE: Mapuche-Huilliches inflict defeat on Spanish in south of today’s Chile Portuguese oust Dutch from Brazil Cromwell pivots to the Caribbean He also has problems with new parliament in London. Mapuche-Huilliches inflict defeat on Spanish in south of today’s Chile I’m afraid I can’t get any more details … Continue reading 1654: News from Mapuche-land, Brazil, London
In 1653 CE, as for more than 200 years prior, the armed merchant ships of West European nations– now, in chronological order, Portugal, Spain, England, and Netherlands– were all roaming the world’s oceans and looting their plunder from non-European nations on every continent except Australia. In many places, now, the fighters aboard those ships had … Continue reading 1653: News from London, ‘New Amsterdam’, Scheveningen, & Kerala
Without a doubt, the major development of geo-historical impact in 1652 CE was the outbreak of armed conflict between the navies of the two powerful Protestant-European global empires that had emerged over the preceding eight decades, when they displaced to a considerable degree (though not wholly) the two older Catholic-European empires that had preceded them. … Continue reading 1652: Netherlands & England at war
The three development of geo-historical significance in 1651 CE were as follows: Conquistadors in Chile negotiate deal with Mapuche indigenes but a naval incident threatens that. Cromwell lures Charles II’s Scottish army into a deadly trap far south of the border. London’s Parliament gets serious about seapower and its link to imperial trade. I will … Continue reading 1651: News from Chile, England, Istanbul, & more
Lots of shortish news this year, 1650 CE. Throughout the year, the politically and religiously complex Commonwealth vs. monarchist conflict continued to roil England, Scotland, and Ireland (though mainly the latter two of those lands.) I shall note below only what was happening in Scotland and a small event in England. Remember though that these … Continue reading 1650: News from Netherlands, England, Scotland, Ireland, Bengal, West Indies– and Harvard
The biggest developments of 1649 CE in the continuing development of Western hegemony of the world all centered on Oliver Cromwell. In last year’s bulletin we took his story up to the beheading of King Charles I in January 1649 and Cromwell’s announcement of an anti-monarchical Commonwealth. Throughout the rest of the year he consolidated … Continue reading 1649: Cromwell consolidates at home, colonizes Ireland, revamps English Navy. Etc.
In international affairs, the Peace of Westphalia that was concluded among numerous, European-only parties in 1648 CE set the basic rules of inter-state conduct that are still fundamentally in place, covering the entire world of humankind, until today. Already in 1648, four European states had extensive transoceanic empires through which they were able to affect … Continue reading 1648: Peace of Westphalia sets inter-state rules for >370 years. (Etc.)